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Parameter estimates were used to gauge the effect of vaccinating household members (cocooning) to prevent the infection in young infants. Here, we extend the concept of maternal‐offspring conflict beyond the womb to interactions between fetal cells and maternal tissues throughout the body both during and after pregnancy. During the neonatal period its clinical phenotype shows great similarities with that of Prader-Willi syndrome.

In healthy women, male DNA was detected in the mammary glands of more than half of women sampled 53. It is important to point out here that cooperation and conflict between maternal and offspring interests does not imply intention on the part of either party, but it is instead a consequence of selection that can be instantiated through a variety of mechanisms. After pregnancy, fetal cells may play important roles in continued maternal investment in the offspring through manipulation of lactation, thermoregulation, and attachment systems. We sought to determine whether the antibody response to tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) is sufficiently rapid to support the cocoon strategy.

After parturition, the maternal immune system actively clears some but not all fetal cells from the maternal blood through inducing apoptosis 11. Recently, the Dutch Health Council advised that all pregnant women in the Netherlands be vaccinated against pertussis in a vaccination programme.

These studies suggest that fetal cells are at least passively contributing to increased somatic maintenance in mothers and are likely actively contributing to wound healing. Pasgeborenen en jonge, nog niet of onvoldoende gevaccineerde zuigelingen vormen de belangrijkste risicogroep voor het krijgen van een ernstige kinkhoestinfectie. Considering the evolutionary and phylogenetic origins of fetal cells suggests that they may have a similar function to the placenta. Murine models of thyroiditis find a higher frequency of fetal cell microchimerism in the thyroid during and after pregnancy 67. This work was made possible by support by grants from the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) R01 CA170595, R01 CA185138, NIH/NCI R01 PQC3 “Genomic and Microenvironmental Diversity as Drivers of Progression in DCIS,” the John Templeton Foundation grant “Generous by nature: Need‐based transfers and the origins of human cooperation (CAA),” and startup funding from the School of Life Sciences, the Biodesign Institute (MAWS), and the Department of Psychology (CAA) at Arizona State University.

Maternale overlijdens door een onrechtstreekse obstetrische oorzaak zijn overlijdens die het gevolg zijn van een vooraf bestaande ziekte of van een aandoening die zich in de loop van de zwangerschap ontwikkelde en niet het gevolg was van rechtstreekse obstetrische oorzaken, maar door de fysiologische effecten van de zwangerschap werd verergerd.

In de differentiaaldiagnose bij Prader-Willi-syndroom', Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, vol. Recommending immunization from the second trimester onwards would widen the immunization opportunity window and could improve seroprotection. Despite >50 years of universal vaccination, pertussis remains the most prevalent vaccine-preventable infectious disease in developed countries.Murine injury models have tracked fetal cells actively migrating to the site of injury in the maternal body 17, 40, 41, 42. Fetal IgA showed a slow linear rise with fetal levels at term remaining approximately 1,000 times lower than the concentration in the maternal circulation. It is unknown whether these findings are due to active fetal cell migration from the blood into diseased tissue or whether the presence of fetal cells contributes to the disease. For the first 9 months of 2013 compared with the same period in 2012, the greatest proportionate fall in confirmed cases (328 cases in 2012 vs 72 cases in 2013, −78%, 95% CI −72 to −83) and in hospitalisation admissions (440 admissions in 2012 vs 140 admissions in 2013, −68%, −61 to −74) occurred in infants younger than 3 months, although the incidence remained highest in this age group.

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